Fusion splicers are machines that join two unconnected lengths of fiber optic cable.
Fiber optic cable is an information transmission system that uses light pulses instead of electrical pulses to transmit bits of information.
A bit of information is one data point, such as a one or a zero, or on and off. Electrical pulses or light pulses use a type of Morris code. When an electrical or light pulse passes through the wire or fiber optic cable, the bit of information registers as on, or a one. When no pulse is present that absence of stimulation registers as the opposite, a zero, or off.
Fiber optic cable has several advantages over electrical wire for the purposes of transmitting bits of information. It can transmit more pulses from similarly sized cable, transmit them faster, and do so with less energy expenditure.
One major disadvantage fiber optic cable has is that it requires new special tools to work with it.
Fusion splicers are electrical tools that use an electrical arc, or another high heat production element, to splice fiber optic cables. Fiber optic cables will fail to properly carry their bit pulse signal if the joint between two lengths of cable are not properly connected so that light can pass through without warping. A fusion splicer is a machine that must be used to perform this operation.